How can long-term stationing in the space station be a "happy and fat house"

  Guide to Work and Life of Space Station ②

  It is normal for astronauts to bring laptops to the space station. Compared with the computers we usually use, the computers used in spacecraft or space stations pay more attention to reliability. They should be able to resist the harsh space environment, such as vibration, noise and space radiation. So relatively speaking, the requirements for computing power can only be reduced.

  Yang Yuguang, researcher of China Second Academy of Aerospace Science and Technology, and vice chairman of the Space Transportation Committee of the International Astronautical Federation.

  On May 30th, the Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft carrying the astronauts’ living materials, extravehicular spacesuit, platform equipment of space station, application load and propellant was accurately docked at the backward port of Tianhe core module by autonomous rapid rendezvous and docking mode, and the Tianhe core module of China Space Station welcomed the first "visitor".

  If all goes well, there will be two groups of astronauts with a total of six people this year, becoming the first batch of "space citizens" in China’s space station, and the six-month residence time will become the normal state for astronauts to travel in orbit.

  During these six months, scientific research and daily activities such as space science experiments and technical experiments, cargo ship material transfer, extravehicular activities and operations, regenerative life support system verification, space station cabin management, robotic arm operation and on-orbit maintenance will be crowded with astronauts every day.

  Sitting in the "star view room" and looking up at the sky are all "big movies", how can we live up to the gift of the Milky Way? From the experience of staying in the space station, how do astronauts have a dialogue between heaven and earth? Can they surf the Internet? Did you sleep soundly? How to relax and entertain?

  Have special requirements for notebook computers.

  Nowadays, notebook computers, tablet computers, mobile phones and other electronic mobile devices have become indispensable work and life companions for human beings. But in fact, in the space station far away from the earth, these mobile devices have never been absent.

  "It is normal for astronauts to bring laptops to the space station." Yang Yuguang, a researcher at the Second Academy of Aerospace Science and Technology of China and vice chairman of the Space Transportation Committee of the International Astronautical Federation, told the Science and Technology Daily reporter, "Compared with the computers we usually use, computers used in spacecraft or space stations pay more attention to reliability. They should be able to resist the harsh space environment, such as vibration, noise and space radiation. So relatively speaking, the requirements for computing power can only be reduced. "

  "In addition, there is a basic requirement for bringing these equipment to the space station, that is, to ensure the safety of the equipment." Yang Yuguang said, "Similar to flying, these devices can’t be charged during the lift-off. Once the battery explodes during the charging process, and the space of the manned spacecraft is very closed and narrow, it may lead to the crash and death."

  He said that the test cabinet of the space station has various power outputs, and generally speaking, the voltage output will be relatively low. Notebook computers, mobile phones and other equipment can be charged by generally accessing the voltage output ports of 5 volts and 12 volts.

  Pang Zhihao, chief scientific communication expert of space exploration technology in China, said: "Generally, these notebook computers dedicated to space are uniformly configured by research institutes, and they are characterized by small size, light weight and flexible use. Laptops used by astronauts are generally used to process experimental data. "

  In the sky and core cabin of China’s space station launched not long ago, the scene lighting in the cabin can be controlled by the mobile phone App, which means that the mobile phone is equivalent to a controller with more diversified functions.

  At present, the Tianhe core module, which is waiting for the launch of other components of the China Space Station in space, is also implanted with WiFi. Zhu Guangchen, deputy chief designer of the space station system, introduced that the core cabin adopts scene lighting technology and WiFi communication technology, which can easily and conveniently control the switch of lighting equipment, inquire about the material storage on the station and make video calls with the ground. Through the communication link between heaven and earth and video call equipment, the space station can realize two-way video call and send and receive emails with the ground.

  Relay satellite guarantees surfing on the Internet.

  But if there is only a computer and no network, astronauts can’t have a "dialogue between heaven and earth."

  "Although there are routers in the space station, astronauts need to be compatible with the communication protocol of the space station if they want to use the network signal of the space station." Yang Yuguang said that astronauts can not only surf the Internet on the space station, but also send emails.

  "At present, NASA and ESA have their own relay satellites, which can guarantee the 24-hour uninterrupted network connection between the space station and the ground." Yang Yuguang said that in China, the space station and ground communication mainly rely on ground monitoring and control stations, data transmission receiving stations and sky-chain relay satellites, among which the sky-chain relay satellites can ensure uninterrupted communication.

  Relay satellites are called "satellite satellites", which can provide data relay and measurement and control services for satellites, spaceships and other spacecraft, data relay and measurement and control services for satellites in low and medium orbit such as remote sensing, surveying and mapping and meteorology, and measurement and control support for spacecraft launch.

  From 2008 to 2012, China successively launched the 01-03 satellites of Tianlian-1, and three satellites were networked to operate, making China the second country in the world with a relay satellite system with global coverage for medium and low orbit spacecraft. In 2016, Tianlian-1 04 successfully entered orbit and completed on-orbit test, and realized global networking operation with 01-03 satellites, providing data relay and measurement and control services for shenzhou spaceship, space laboratories and space stations in China, and supporting space rendezvous and docking.

  In March 2019, the 01 star of Tianlian II was successfully launched, which is the first star of China’s second-generation geosynchronous orbit data relay satellite. It is compatible with Tianlian-1 satellite system, which further improves the transmission rate, service quantity and coverage of space-based communication infrastructure characterized by data relay in China.

  Detailed design makes astronauts sleep better.

  There are six areas in the sealed cabin of Tianhe core cabin: working area, sleeping area, sanitary area, dining area, medical supervision and medical insurance area and exercise area. In order to keep the astronaut’s biological clock unaffected, the designer set up a scene lighting system in the cabin, which can change the lights into dusk mode or daytime mode regularly. These detailed considerations are to create a livable environment for astronauts.

  Yang Yuguang said that in weightlessness, carbon dioxide exhaled during sleep will accumulate near the nose, and if there is no ventilation, there will be a risk of suffocation. Therefore, the wind speed in the sleeping area and working area of China Space Station is different. After many tests, the design team finally set the wind speed in the working area to 0.08 meters per second and the wind speed in the sleeping area to 0.05 meters per second.

  Yang Yuguang added that, generally speaking, the control system of the space station will control the oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the cabin in a suitable range, which mainly depends on the air supply pressure regulation and ventilation and filtration system to supplement or adjust the gas, and the operation of these systems will produce noise.

  Yang Hong, chief designer of China’s manned space station system, admitted in an interview with the media that the design team spent a year and a half tackling the noise problem. The researchers effectively filtered out the noise by adding vibration isolators, which reduced the noise in the working area from 71 decibels to 58 decibels, and the noise in the sleeping area from 58 decibels to 49 decibels, enabling astronauts to fall asleep in a relatively comfortable environment.

  The earth is a "model" and enjoys photography.

  Working and living in space for a long time, although far away from all social activities on earth, does not affect astronauts’ "addiction" to social media. According to media reports, American astronaut scott kelly posted more than 700 photos of life in space on social networking sites during his stay on the International Space Station, which won him a lot of fans. Japanese astronaut Takeichi Noguchi also shared the beauty of space and the daily life of astronauts with netizens.

  Chris Hadfield, a former stationmaster of the International Space Station and a Canadian, also made a refreshing trip to space. During his last trip to space from 2012 to 2013, he recorded the music video "Space Weirdo" on the International Space Station with a guitar and a slightly sad voice, which quickly became popular.

  Hadfield also has a special hobby — — Take detailed photos of the earth with a telephoto lens. For the best effect, he will wait until the sun shines directly on the desert before pressing the shutter. One of his most proud works is the sub-Saharan Africa photographed from space.

  The "window" on the top of the space station provides an excellent perspective for scientists to observe and record the earth.